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PostPosted: Sun Jul 11, 2010 11:53 pm 
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That's a good idea. Unfortunately, I'm but one person, and I'm up to my eyeballs - which is actually rather nice in some ways, because it means I've got many interests and a passion for life!

But, alas, I can't handle it all. So, I would be pleased if others could step up to the plate as well. You have my works to use as templates for organizing the material and presenting it in a digestible and effective manner. Perhaps some day I could teach courses on how to research, write and create books like I do. And there's yet another task for me to look forward to... :shock:

natselection wrote:
Could a book length treatment be done for this topic?

Other topics that would make for book length treatment could be the following:

1.Dying and Rising gods

2.Baptism across ancient cultures

3.Mother and Child motif

4.Godmen and disciples

etc..

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PostPosted: Mon Jul 12, 2010 1:11 am 
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Here's an interesting image from M.M. Mangasarian's fine mythicist book The Truth About Jesus.

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PostPosted: Tue Jul 27, 2010 12:54 am 
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(This is not a human figure on a cross, but it does relate to the cross, and it is certainly worthy of further research.)

Egyptian "Houses of Goodness"

M.M. Mangasarian reproduces an image of one in his book The Truth About Jesus (77). The sign at the top of this structure is the hieroglyph meaning "Goodness" (Gardner's F35).

Image

This image is also reproduced in Dr. Paul Carus's The Open Court (v. 14, p. 232), with a bit more information, saying that the "House of Goodness" is "[s]howing the ancient Egyptian hieroglyph of a cross standing on a heart."

The Open Court writer also says:

Quote:
In a former article on the cross (Vol. XIII., p. 157) we mentioned among the Egyptian crosses the hieroglyphic symbol of a heart surmounted by a Latin cross (Image), which in the ancient Egyptian iconography denoted goodness of heart or saintliness. We can now furnish a picture of the entrance to an institution of charity, which exhibits over the door this symbol covered with an enclosure, denoting a building of any kind. Thus the inscription means "house of goodness."

Carus, et al. cites the image: "The illustration is reproduced after Sir Gardner Wilkinson (Ancient Egyptians, I., p. [sic]) from the French translation of Mourant Brock's essay on the cross (p. 45). La Croix Palenne et Chretienne, Paris, Ernest Leroux, 28 rue Bonaparte. 1881."

Apparently, these fascinating and clear predecessors to churches have been of little interest to modern scholars, as we surely would have known about them otherwise! (Scratches head.)

Nefer and Chrestos

The hieroglyph for "Goodness" thus is a trachea and heart that resembles the "Sacred Heart of Jesus," as seen in this image of Catholic priest Charles de Foucald of the Association of the Brothers and Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus:

Image

The word "Goodness" is Nefer in Egyptian:

Quote:
Nefer

Appearance: The origin of the hieroglyph is complex. It's appearance is sometimes described as a stylized stomach and windpipe. However, the hieroglyph is actually the heart and trachea. It originally may have been the esophagus and heart. The striations of the windpipe only appear in the hieroglyph following the Old Kingdom. The lower part of the sign has always clearly been the heart, for the markings clearly follow the form of a sheep's heart.

Meaning: The term nefer was very popular throughout the ages with the ancient Egyptians. It appears with a dozen different meanings in their literature... all positive. It was also incorporated into many personal names, including those of the famous queens Nefertiti and Nefertari.

The Egyptian word nefer - applied to many gods and goddesses - was equivalent to Chrēstos in Greek, a word used to describe the much later Jesus as well. In this regard, centuries before Christ's purported existence, the Egyptian goddess Isis was called Chrēst:

Image

On a Marcionite church of the early fourth century, we find reference to "Jesus the Chrēst" or "Jesus the Good," while the earliest New Testament manuscripts also use the words Chrestos and Chrestians, not Christos and Christians.

Place of Funerary Purification?

In the Egyptian Coffin Texts appear references to pr-nfr, which is generally rendered "the Good House" or "House of Goodness," a phrase said to designate "the place where the rebellious subjects of Osiris were surrendered to him and qualifying him, 'the lord'." (Miscellanea Academica Berolinensia, 2.51)

This place is also a "funerary workshop" (Osing, The Heritage of Ancient Egypt, 52) and "embalmer's house." According to ancient texts, this "Good House" was where bodies were washed, embalmed, wrapped and placed in a coffin, as preparation for their journey to the afterlife. This building would be much like a funeral home of today, which are often associated with churches, where funerals are frequently held.

Quote:
The embalmer's workshop was called the House of Purification of the Good House, and in it a long and complicated series of rites was enacted during the wrapping of the mummy and the placing of its amulets in their places. (Smith, Egyptian Mummies)

A priest who engaged in this embalming ritual was called "Anubis in the Good House," referring to the important jackal-headed god of the underworld who purified or baptized the dead for passage and immortality.

Further Reading

Is Suetonius's Chresto a Reference to Jesus?

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PostPosted: Tue Jul 27, 2010 8:47 am 
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Very interesting indeed!

It looks to have been used with regards to divinity too :

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"The perfect god" is the nefer glyph with the word "god," which is the emblem of divinity, a cloth wound on a pole.


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PostPosted: Mon Aug 09, 2010 1:40 am 
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Ixion, the pre-Christian son of God on a cross

The Greek demigod Ixion is depicted as "king of the lapiths," a Thessalian tribe of pre-Hellenic "relatives" of Centaurs. Ixion is portrayed as the son of Ares, Zeus - whose name means "God" - or other figure. Because of various transgressions, he is punished by Zeus by being bound on a "fiery, solar wheel" in cruciform for all eternity. Ixion is thus a pre-Christian divine figure depicted in cruciform or on a cross.

In this regard, Christianity and Mythology, John M. Robertson discusses the Indian sacred scriptures the Vedas, as well as the fire-god Agni, who share many characteristics in common with Christ, including the symbolism of the cross:

Quote:
...In the Vedas, Agni, the Fire-God, is perpetually figured as a divine child born of the two aranis; and to represent the God as being generated by the friction of the crossed sticks would be to figure him on the cross. And this is the probable origin of various symbolic combinations of the cross with the sun: as the figuring of the Deity in the Assyrian system as a cross, of which the upright is a human figure and the transverse beam a conventionalized pair of wings, a type of which in Eastern Mithraic remains becomes a crucified figure... And in the Mihr Yasht ritual, in the Zendavesta, Mithra, the Sun-God, drives in his chariot across the heavens "with his arms lifted up towards immortality." It is a perfectly intelligible variation of the same idea which appears in the myth of Ixion, crucified on his "four-spoked fetter," as Pindar calls it. Ixion was himself, undoubtedly, in some mythology, at some time, the actual Sun-God, and would as such be figured outstretched at once on the fire-cross and on the sun-wheel.

For the "four-spoked fetter" crucifixion of Ixion mentioned by Pindar, Robertson cites Pythians, ii, 74. Pindar, it should be, noted long predated the Christian era, living about 522 to 443 BCE.

Quote:
...Ixion, by the commands of the gods, ever whirled round on the winged wheel... soon did the man in suffering the just deserts of his crime, receive especial woe... And he wrought for himself the four-spoked bond, his own destruction; and having been thrown into inevitable fetters, he took upon himself the message destined for all...

Image

Here is what appears to be the original of the above image:

Image

The caption reads:

Quote:
Kampanische Amphora mit Ixion
4. Jh. v. Chr., Inv. F 3023
© SMB, Antikensammlung; Foto: Johannes Laurentius

This image dates to the fourth century BCE. There is also a bronze mirror with an image of Ixion on the back which dates from the mid 5th century BCE.

In these images - and in Pindar - we possess a pre-Christian story and image of a divine figure who was punished by being crucified and depicted in cruciform. In Ixion we have a pre-Christian, suffering son of God punished on a "four-spoked bond" of his own creation, whence "he took upon himself the message destined for all." Compare to Jesus Christ, the "Suffering Servant" who carried his own cross, ostensibly as a punishment, at which point he takes upon himself the message of the salvation of all mankind.

Wilson's Almanac author writes:

Quote:
Ixion...may be seen as representing the eternally moving sun. In some parts of Europe in ancient times, a blazing, revolving wheel was carried through fields that needed the heat of the sun; perhaps the Ixion legend evolved to explain the Vitruvius Mancustom and was subsequently adopted by the Greeks.

The myth of Ixion is told by Diodorus, Pindar, Virgil in Georgics and Aeneid, and by Ovid in Metamorphoses.


Pindar is five to six centuries before the common era, and Diodorus writes in the first century BCE, as did Virgil (70-19 BCE), while Ovid lived from 43 BCE to 17 or 18 AD/CE. Hence, in these four authors, we possess evidence of this pre-Christian parallel from several centuries before the Christian era right into the time of Christ's alleged advent - in the writings of some of the most well-known writers of the ancient world. Thus, this myth was not obscure or long forgotten by the time Jesus supposedly suffered a similar fate.

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PostPosted: Mon Jan 31, 2011 8:36 pm 
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Neolithic 'Odin-Wotan' on the Cross with a Spear in His Side

While studying the writings in Hommages à Maarten J. Vermaseren (v. 2; Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1978), I've come across a fascinating, scholarly article that, among other things, delves into ancient numerology and its connection to solar symbols. Much of what I've written in Christ Conspiracy in this regard is verified by this article by Walter O. Moeller, entitled "Marks, Names and Numbers."

In his discussion about the solar chi-rho symbol that eventually came to represent Jesus Christ, resembling a man on a cross, Moeller (817) includes an image from a "neolithic passage-grave in Denmark":

Image

The neolithic period in Scandinavia extends from around 7,000 to 2600 BCE. Moeller (817-818) describes the image thus:

Quote:
To the right of the stick-man is the four-spoked solar wheel and the six-pointed asterisk. The stick-man, which is also a Chi-Rho of sorts...has fingers at the ends of both arms, a line slanting down through the upright and a leg extending down from the upright to the right. The slanting line has been correctly identified as a spear and the whole figure, therefore, as a representation of a savior-god. But in this case the deity cannot be the Christ but must be instead Odin-Wotan who hanged himself on a tree for nine days and nine nights with a spear in his side as a sacrifice to himself. The slanting line makes the stickman also a prototypal St Stephan's Cross. Somewhat similar to this neolithic symbol from Northern Europe is a stick-man figure from predynastic Egypt.

To the trained eye, this image and description represent quite the admission, as well as commentary upon the fact that what is known in the hallowed halls of academia rarely makes it to the masses. This book was published in 1978, so why hasn't this information concerning a pre-Christian savior-god on a cross with a spear through his side widely known?

In the meantime, this fact is pretty much what I have been contending for all these years, during which time I have been on the receiving end of much calumny and abuse, while professional scholars confirmed this same contention long ago.

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PostPosted: Sat Feb 04, 2012 9:18 am 
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Ishtar with pierced hands.


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PostPosted: Sun Feb 05, 2012 2:36 pm 
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Awesome! Do we have the date and provenance for that artifact? Any other descriptions available?

This artifact perfectly exemplifies how an icon would be used as protection in antiquity, possibly hung over a doorway or on a wall, just as Christians do with crucifixes. It becomes obvious that in ancient times, gods and goddesses on crosses or in cruciform were used to adorn sacred spaces and that Christ on a cross is a derivative based on a common and popular form.

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PostPosted: Sun Feb 05, 2012 5:37 pm 
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I tried my best at reverse image searching, but could not find any details. It is in the British Museum.

Found this page:
http://sunlight.orgfree.com/history_of_sun_gazing.htm

..which claims the figure is a female version of Shamash:
Quote:
The Akkadian/ Babylonian sun god Shamash or Shemesh, also a bringer of light, upholder of law and order, and prophetic oracle, was originally an eagle-shaped Sun-goddess, as seen into an Sumerian artifact, and as demonstrated in personal names Ummi-Shamash which means My Mother is Shamash. Phoenicians called her Shapash and was the goddess of the Sun. Called the Luminary of the Deities, the Torch of the Gods, She sees all that transpires on Earth by day and guards the souls of the dead in the underworld by night. Like the Akkadian Shamash, She is a deity of justice, often serving to mediate for the deities in disputes. She is related to Shamsh, Chems, an Arabic Sun-goddess worshipped at sunrise, noon, and sunset.

The page has a nice collection of images, for example this quite on-topic artifact:

Image

Quote:
As seen earlier, the sun goddess Shapash, known at Ebla as Shipish, was first represented as a winged goddess and later as a sun-lion headed goddess. As a winged goddess, she was represented on a golden plaque, having four wings shaped as a X cross. In this representation, the goddess is naked and wears a small triangular apron covering her genital area. Latter, a winged god was represented exactly in the same way, twice, with lotus blossoms and a winged sun disc, as found on a bronze cheek-piece for a horse (length: 51 centimeters) from a tomb at ancient Salamis on Cyprus dated the end of the 8th century BCE. His 4 wings are also cross shaped, suggesting his solar origin.


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PostPosted: Fri Jun 22, 2012 11:32 pm 
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Uses in Antiquity of the Greek Word Stauroo, 'To Crucify'

The word used in the New Testament to describe Jesus's "cross" is stauros, meaning "cross" or "stake," from the verb σταυρόω or stauroo. The Germanic word "stave" derives from this Greek term, and it often refers not to an actual crucifixion, with arms out to the side, but to a staking, as in an impalement.

In any event, this term stauroo is not limited to the New Testament but can be found in many ancient texts, a survey of which might prove fruitful in discerning Christian origins.

For example, the same basic word is used by Diodorus (3.65.5) in the first century BCE to describe the crucifixion of a king by the god Dionysus:

Quote:
τὸν δὲ Διόνυσον περαιώσαντα τὰς δυνάμεις μάχῃ κρατῆσαι τῶν Θρᾳκῶν, καὶ τὸν Λυκοῦργον ζωγρήσαντα τυφλῶσαί τε καὶ πᾶσαν αἰκίαν εἰσενεγκάμενον ἀνασταυρῶσαι

There are many such instances, so take a look at the Perseus Hopper results.

You will note that there are several biblical results on the first page of the above link. However, if you continue, you will find more non-Christian references as well, such as Pausanias, Strabo and Thucydides.

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 24, 2012 9:59 am 
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Several western dialects, as mine, still use the word staur. Staur is also still present in the islandic language. They both derive from the older norwegian word staurr

Staurer ( plural ) are still used in areas where traditional farming is maintained.

A wagon with a pile of staurer

Image

One example of use is for hesjing ( drying grass for winter storage )

Image


The norwegian translation of the bible used by Jehovah's Witnesses have taken this into consideration, and translated cross to - torturpåle - impalement by a pole.

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 25, 2012 6:40 am 
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Acharya

Your use of the word stauros reminded me of the following from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentinianism

The task of Horos is to separate the fallen Aeons from the upper world of Aeons. At the same time he becomes a kind of world-creative power, who in this capacity helps to construct an ordered world out of Sophia and her passions. He is also called Stauros (cross), and we frequently meet with references to the figure of Stauros. Speculations about the Stauros are older than Christianity, and a Platonic conception may have been at work here. Plato had already stated that the World-Soul revealed itself in the form of the letter Chi (X); by which he meant that figure described in the heavens by the intersecting orbits of the sun and the planetary ecliptic. Since through this double orbit all the movements of the heavenly powers are determined, so all “becoming” and all life depend on it, and thus we can understand the statement that the World-Soul appears in the form of an X, or a cross.
The cross can also stand for the wondrous Aeon on whom depends the ordering and life of the world, and thus Horos-Stauros appears here as the first redeemer of Sophia from her passions, and as the orderer of the creation of the world which now begins. Naturally, then, the figure of Horos-Stauros was often assimilated to that of the Christian Redeemer. We possibly find echoes of this in the Gospel of Peter, where the Cross itself is depicted as speaking and even floating out of the tomb.

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PostPosted: Sat May 18, 2013 9:24 am 
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Blog: A Pre-Christian 'God' on a Cross?

A Pre-Christian 'God' on a Cross?

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PostPosted: Mon May 20, 2013 12:02 pm 
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"Osiris is doubly resurrected as his son Horus, too, and he, too, is eventually raised from the dead by Isis. He is pictured as spanning the dome of heaven, his arms stretched out in a cruciform pattern. As such, he seems to represent the common Platonic astronomical symbol of the sun’s path crossing the earth’s ecliptic. Likewise, the Acts of John remembers that the real cross of Jesus is not some piece of wood, as fools think, but rather the celestial “Cross of Light.” Acharya S. ventures that “the creators of the Christ myth did not simply take an already formed story, scratch out the name Osiris or Horus, and replace it with Jesus” (p. 25). But I am pretty much ready to go the whole way and suggest that Jesus is simply Osiris going under a new name, Jesus,” Savior,” hitherto an epithet, but made into a name on Jewish soil. Are there allied mythemes (details, really) that look borrowed from the cults of Attis, Dionysus, etc.? Sure; remember we are talking about a heavily syncretistic context. Hadian remarked on how Jewish and Christian leaders in Egypt mixed their worship with that of Sarapis (=Osiris)."

- Dr. Robert Price, Biblical Scholar with two Ph.D's

Review of Acharya's book "Christ in Egypt"

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PostPosted: Fri Jun 28, 2013 8:29 am 
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Interesting research on the crosses, very helpful, thank you, it proved a theory I'd been tracking in my own research. The cross is an ancient symbol for a very ancient sacred royal bloodline and religion before the fall of Jerusalem. Most gods before that time were all deified related blood royalty in real life (ala Egypt), and sometimes they would sacrifice themselves for the good of their people. They were pure believers in a single god and were pacifists, shared their belongings and gave away their wealth to help the sick and needy. They were incredibly wealthy kings, queens, princesses and princes who owned massive mining and trade rights and fleets of high tech ships and private military. The cross they would wear on their foreheads to let people know who they were and not to harm them (ala Mark of Cain), later worn on the chest due to persecution. They were openly persecuted and sent underground since Herod to 1809, for their wealth and power. Orpheus Bachus, Barrabas, crucified by the Romans on the plains below Masada, circa 66 AD, was the son of the last rightful King of Jerusalem. (And possibly the shroud of Turin's real owner as all persons of genuine royal blood where considered sacred and holy, even to Romans.) But that's only a tiny little mircron of the story, and the intrigue surrounding it is still going on today. I've been researching it for the past few years and share research with several descendants. My research project is at http://www.sangraaltruth.com www.sangraaltruth.com
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