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PostPosted: Wed Jun 27, 2012 1:44 pm 
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Amazon: Did Moses Exist? The Myth of the Israelite Lawgiver

Stellar House Publishing (SHP): Did Moses Exist? The Myth of the Israelite Lawgiver

Stellar House Publishing (SHP): The Study Guide to Did Moses Exist?

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I've been working on my book Did Moses Exist? The Myth of the Israelite Lawgiver, which is coming along nicely, although it is much longer than I expected to do - what else is new? That happens with every project I set out on, because I try to be so thorough and incorporate as much of the research on a subject as I can humanly gather. In this popular subject, one can imagine there is a ton of material to sift through, in a variety of languages, dating back to remote ages. Most of my primary-source research for this project is in Greek, Hebrew and Latin, but there is also some relevant Ugaritic and other Semitic languages, as well as Egyptian, et al.

Although many scholars of the past century to today are clear on the mythical nature of the Exodus tale and the probable (to them) non-historicity of the Moses character, there are a number of historical or quasi-historical individuals and events that have gathered attention as the possible "real Moses" and "real Exodus." These events and individuals include, of course, the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten, the Hyksos and Ahmose I, Osarseph and the lepers, etc. Thus, I spend much of the first part of the book addressing these issues, while the rest of my work provides the comparative religion and mythology.

For example, there is a lengthy section concerning the profound correspondences between the tales of Moses and the Greek god Dionysus. I have created one of my (in)famous lists featuring Dionysus's attributes in relation to the Moses myth, annotating each attribute with a primary source from antiquity, including the original Greek or other language as well. These parallels have been known for centuries by many among the elite; it is therefore disturbing that they are unknown and even hidden from the masses. Why aren't these similarities between Moses and the mythical figure of Dionysus being taught from the pulpit? Because the bibliolaters have a strict hold over the minds of the masses, unfortunately. Otherwise, these same masses could investigate this material with as much fascination as I do.

The following is an UPDATED draft table of contents of my book Did Moses Exist?. Note that, if all the subsections are included, this TOC is about 25 pages long. I have reduced it here to about 10 pages. As you can see, I've covered pretty much everything imaginable in this subject, which is why it's taking so long. Note also that I've held back the details of two chapters, "Life of Dionysus" and "Moses as Solar Hero," as these represent the stunning and amazing heart of the matter. :D

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations
Preface
    The Book of Enoch and Talmud
    Comparative Religion Suppressed
    Meaningful Mythology
    Primary Sources and Translations
    Pioneering Scholarship
    Modern Discoveries
    Space Consideration
    Unprecedented Access
Introduction
    Greek Scriptural Knowledge?
    Philo Judaeus of Alexandria
    History or Propaganda?
    Magical Papyri
    Mythological, Not Historical
    The Mysterious Milieu of the Day
    The Sacred Sanctuary
    Qadesh in Ugaritic
    Many Lawgivers and Law Codes
    Jewish and Pagan Syncretism
    Major Crossing
    Egypt and the Levant
    Byblos
    Egypto-Semitic Religious Exchange
    Osiris in Jerusalem
    Differences Irrelevant
    Biblical Special Pleading
Who Wrote the Pentateuch?
    Mosaic Attribution
    Anachronisms and Contradictions
    Oily or Honeylike Manna?
    Moses’s Death
    Book of the Wars of the Lord
    Moses’s Era
    No Moses Before the Exile?
    Hosea
    Isaiah
    Divine Revelation and Authority
    Hammurabi
    Cosmic Understandings or Petty Concerns?
    Animal Sacrifice
    Human Bloodshed
    No Archaeological Evidence
    Wellhausen and the Documentary Hypothesis
    Exodus Composition
    Earlier Folklore
    The Allegorical ‘Dark Sayings’ of Old
    Sumeria
    Ebla
    Mari
    Ugarit
    The Book of the Law
    Purging Paganism
    Priestly Payoff
    Found or Fabricated?
    Seven-Year Recitation
    Temple Texts
    Josiah’s Yahwism
    Elephantine Papyri
    Ezra’s Memories
    Alexandria?
    Ancient Egyptian Words
    Savior of the Age
    Semitic and Egyptian Language Connections
    Shem
    Bilingual?
    Egyptian Burial
    Hebrew Emergence
    Conclusion
Was Moses an Egyptian Pharaoh or Priest?
    Exodus Date
    Akhenaten the Monotheist?
    Monolatry and ‘Polytheistic Monotheism’
    Syncretism and Oneness
    Atenism
    Prophet of God or Megalomaniac?
    Hebrew Henotheism
    Abraham’s Polytheism?
    El Shaddai
    Yahweh Supremacy
    Amos
    From Sun Disc to Cosmic God
    Great Hymn to Aten and Psalm 104
    Thutmose II?
    Etymology of Moses
    Pharaoh Thutmose III?
    King Tut?
    Ramesses I
    Seti I
    Ramesses II
    Nectanebo II
    A Priest of Aten?
    Adon-Adonis
    Historical Fiction
    Euhemerism/Evemerism
    Astral Religion
    Conclusion
The Exodus as History?
    Nonbiblical References
    Logistic Implausibility
    Four Decades of Desert Traumatization
    Animals and Booty
    Modern Gatherings Irrelevant
    Geography and Archaeology
    Pithom and Pi-Ramesses
    Psusennes I
    On/Heliopolis
    The Burning Bush
    Rods to Serpents
    Bricks without Straw
    Rare Straw
    Elderly Leaders
    The 10 Plagues
    Plague One
    Plague Two
    Plague Three
    Plague Four
    Plague Five
    Plague Six
    Plague Seven
    Plague Eight
    Plague Nine
    Plague Ten
    Unleavened Bread
    Mass Communication
    No Formal Organization
    The Route of the Exodus
    Egyptian Waystations
    The Philistines
    Greeks to Canaanites?
    Sea Peoples
    Pillars of Cloud and Fire
    Parting the Red Sea?
    Sea of Reeds
    Exodus Encampments?
    Simple Place-Names
    Mt. Horeb and Mt. Sinai
    Serabit el-Khadim
    Gulf of Aqaba
    Ba’al-Zephon and Migdol
    Water Sources
    The 12 Wells
    Ritual Sacrifice and Magical Wood?
    Heavenly Manna
    Natural or Supernatural?
    Who or What?
    No Sheep, Goats and Cattle?
    Bird Sacrifice
    Shewbread
    Sabbath Establishment
    29 Trillion Quails?
    Tents or Booths?
    Striking the Rock
    The Amalekites and the Magic Rod
    Judging According to What Statutes?
    Priests before Priests?
    The Ten Commandments
    No Archaeological Evidence
    Second Set
    Slavery?
    The Ark of the Covenant
    Philistine Capture
    Golden Calf
    Cannibalism
    Disposition of the Dead
    Giants in the Promised Land
    Anakim
    No Edomites
    Holy Genocide
    Anachronism
    Time Compression
    Genocide of Canaanites and Amorites
    Magical Clothes
    Conquest of Canaan
    Tin?
    Jericho
    Rahab?
    Anachronism
    No Evidence of Conquest
    Apologies
    Political Fiction and National Epic
    Conclusion
The Exodus in Ancient Literature
    Circular Reasoning
    Song of the Sea
    Psalm 78
    Anachronisms
    First or Second Temple?
    The Baal Cycle
    Salvation Cultus
    Yahh
    Semitic Influence on Egyptian Texts
    The Deep
    Chariots
    Reed Sea?
    Ruach
    Philistines
    Underworld
    Song of Moses
    The Song of Deborah
    Date
    No Moses or Joshua
    No Evidence of the Exodus
    Sisera and the Chariots of Iron
    Astral Symbolism
    Nonhistoricity of Deborah
    The Bee Goddess
    Exodus in the Prophets
    Why No Egyptian Records?
    The Ipuwer Papyrus
    Lamentations Genre
    Early Messianism
    Amarna Letters
    Ilimilku
    Conclusion
Hyksos and Lepers
    Conquerors or Captives?
    Sacred Books?
    Not Wandering Slaves
    Invaders or Infiltrators?
    Religious Conflict?
    Servants of Horus
    History or Fiction?
    Ahmose I
    Tempest Stele
    Jerusalem Founding
    Hyksos as Greeks of Argos
    Proto-Israelite Amorites
    History and Domination
    Amurru and Hapiru
    Mitanni
    Amorite Deities
    Migration
    Aramaeans
    Jebusites and Jerusalem
    Arabians
    Vintners
    Osarseph and the Lepers
    Amenophis/Akhenaten
    A Forgery?
    Syrians from Palestine
    Antiochus IV
    Lysimachus and Chaeremon
    Tacitus on Jewish Origins
    Leprosy
    Fugitives from Crete?
    Flight of Saturn
    The Sacred Ass
    Osarseph Redux
    Thieving Son of Joseph?
    Egyptian Wisdom
    Egyptian Cultural Influence
    Conclusion
Who Were the Israelites?
    Jacob to Israel
    El Prevails
    Merneptah/Merenptah Stele
    No Exodus
    ‘His Seed is Not’
    People, Not Land
    ‘Poetic Text,’ Not Israel?
    Mesha Stele
    Hapiru
    Multiethnic Mob
    Shechem
    Hebrews?
    Bedu
    Egyptian Campaigns
    Shasu of Yhw
    Wanderers
    Plunderers
    Transjordan Origin
    Westward Thrust
    Pithom
    Goshen and Joseph
    Aromatic Gum
    Hill Settlement
    Yhw is Yahweh?
    Seir
    10,000 Holy Ones
    Sin
    Early Israelite Religion
    Conclusion
The Exodus as Myth
    The Slaughter of Innocents
    The Flight Archetype
    Baal-Seth
    The Great Mendes Stele
    The Sun-Horus
    The Ram and Son of the Ram
    The Exodus from Egypt of Osiris
    Light Bringer
    Journey East
    The Exodus of Jesus
    Pagan Exoduses
    The Exodus as Drama
    Dionysian Drama
    Exodus as Midrash
    Magical Rod
    The 10 Plagues?
    Pagan Divine Intervention
    Roman Pestilence
    Ra, Hathor and the Bloody Nile
    Storm God of Hatti
    Rešef of Canaan
    Three Days of Darkness
    600,000 as a Mystical Number
    The Kabbalah
    The Papyrus of Nebseni
    The Khus or Spirits
    Khu Cakes
    Cyrus the Christ and the 600,000
    Mythical Pillars
    Parting and Crossing the Sea
    Ishtar and the Watery Gate
    Sinuhe Crossing the Waterway
    Rama and Adam’s Bridge
    Indian Jews
    Alexander and Cyprus
    The 12 Watery Divisions
    Controlling the Waters
    Baal and Prince Sea/Judge River
    Heroes and Monsters
    Tiamat, Monster of the Deep
    Tannin and Leviathan
    Rahab the Sea Monster
    Pharaoh as the Dragon
    The Great Dragon
    Kronos, Ophion and Nachash
    Storm and Sun God
    Marduk and the Sun
    Apollo and Python
    Horus and the Serpent/Crocodile
    St. George and the Dragon
    Wandering the Wilderness
    12 Wells and 70 Palms
    Manna and Heavenly Bread
    Egypt
    Ugarit
    India
    Water from a Rock
    Mithra
    Dionysus
    Poseidon
    Krishna
    Spiritual Rock
    Forty Days, Nights and Years
    Mishnah
    The Many Arks
    Kibotos
    Treasure Chest
    Pelops and Cleomedes
    Aaron and Horus
    Ark of Osiris
    Dionysus’s Ark
    Covenants and Testaments
    Pagan Covenants
    The Golden Calf
    Molech
    Baal, El and Atak
    Supremacist Propaganda
    Mythical Giants
    Sons of God
    Conclusion
The Lawgiver Archetype
    The Hero’s Birth
    Sargon the Great
    Ra-Horakhti
    Dionysus and Horus
    Apollo and Creusa
    Shamash
    Adonis
    Tyro’s Twins
    Noah’s Basket?
    Philo and Moses
    Divine Legislators
    Ur-Nammu
    Menes/Manes, Manis and Mannus
    Menu/Manu
    Minos
    Law Code/Tablets of Law
    The Egyptian Book of the Dead
    The Code of Hammurabi
    Enki, Enlil and the Tablets of Me
    Roman Tables of Law
    Plato’s Laws
    Hecataeus of Abdera
    Pygmy Lawgiver
    Mountains of the Moon
    Conclusion
The Dionysus Connection
    Early History
    The Pelasgians
    Crete
    Lunar Observations
    Sumerian Dionysus?
    Dionysus in Literature
    Beth Shean
    Homer
    Hesiod
    Homeric Hymns
    Anacreon
    Pindar
    Herodotus
    Pig Sacrifice
    Reincarnation
    Orotalt
    Nifty Nabateans
    Mysteries of Dionyus
    Orphic Hymns
    Pergamum
    Nile-Born Musaeus
    Euripides
    Horns
    Pentheus the Serpent
    Proselytizing Play
    Aristophanes
    Plato
    Megasthenes
    Nysa in India
    Meros
    Conquest and Wine
    Artapanus
    Moses as Orphic Teacher
    Apollodorus
    Maccabees
    Bacchus and Yahweh
    Varro
    Cicero
    Diodorus
    Crucifixion
    Army
    Osiris
    The Sun
    Horace
    Ovid
    Seneca
    Pliny the Elder
    Plutarch
    Jewish Dionysus Worship
    Feast of the Booths
    Vintage
    Pausanias
    Arrian
    Justin Martyr
    Lucian of Samosata
    Clement of Alexandria
    Polyaenus
    Philostratus
    Porphyry
    Eusebius
    Human Sacrifice
    Sepphoris Mosaic
    Macrobius
    Bacchus as Apollo
    Solar Bacchus
    Iao
    Hermias
    Nonnus
    The Sun, Wine and Grapevine Paramours
    Staphylus and the Grape Bunch
    The Ruddy Sea
    Sanford
    Nysa-Sinai Connection
    Vossius
    Bochart
    Gale
    Jehovahnissi
    Thomassin
    Patrick
    Danet
    Huet
    Voltaire
    Sun Standing Still
    Edwards
    Bell
    Dupuis
    Hort
    Le Brun
    Bellamy
    Jehovah Nisi
    Clarke
    Higgins
    Darlington
    Taylor
    Massey
    Conclusion
The Life of Dionysus [see the book]
The Vine and Wine
    Early History
    Egypt’s Vineyards
    Oenological Osiris
    Sacred Chalice
    Near Eastern Trade
    Wine Goddesses
    Vine as Tree of Life
    Greek Viniculture
    Dionysian Cult Extensions
    Blood and Resurrection
    New Dionysus
    Wine Epithets and Roles
    Father Bacchus
    Elixir of Love
    Wedding Feasts
    Baal’s Cup
    Sacred Drinking Banquet
    Tel Kabri
    Biblical Wine Reverence
    Noah, the Vintner
    Eshcol
    Melchizedek or ‘Righteous Molech’
    Wine-Drenched Messiah
    Blood of the Grape/Messiah
    Tammuz
    The Law and Wine
    Uzziah and Hezekiah
    New Testament
    Water to Wine
    Water to Wine Sluice
    Ass and Foal
    Hephaistos
    Little Asses
    The Sprout of Jesse
    The Magic Rod
    Hermes
    Circe
    Apollo’s Oath
    Athena
    Diviners and Herbalists
    Sprouting Bacchus
    Sacred Serpents
    Metatron’s Rod
    Ugaritic and Egyptian Divine Staffs
    Conclusion
The Great God Sun
    Shamash, Lord of the World
    שםש Shemesh
    God of My Father
    Semitic Sun Goddess
    Shapash/Shamash the Lightbringer and Lawgiver
    King, Shepherd and Raiser of the Dead
    Jesus as Shamash
    Samson the Sun
    El the Canaanite High God
    Yahweh and Saturn
    Israelite Syncretism
    Majestic Plural
    El the God of Exodus?
    The Bull
    Ram
    El the Merciful
    Holy Mount of Elohim
    70 Sons of El
    Yahweh as El’s Son
    Sons of the Most High
    Yw, son of El
    El’s Wives Asherat and Anat
    Sons and Venus
    Wine
    King
    El Shaddai
    Mountain God?
    The Archer
    Enlil and Ellil
    Lord of the Storm
    Adad/Hadad
    Baal
    Conclusion
Yahweh and the Sun
    Origins and History
    To Be or Create?
    Solar Yahwism
    Sun Artifacts
    LMLK Seals
    Yah, Jah, Yahh
    Sun and Shield
    Psalm 104
    Mazzaroth/Mazzaloth
    Stations and Mansions of the Sun
    Manzaltu/Manzazu
    Jewish Zodiacs
    Tempestuous Yahweh
    Ezekiel’s Godly Visions
    The Four Living Creatures
    Four Fixed Signs
    The Chariot or Merkaba of the Sun
    The Beasts on the Temple Wall
    Tammuz and the Sun
    Feast of the Tabernacles
    Lunar Deity
    Iah
    Ieuo
    Iao
    Chaldeans and Judith
    Dead Sea Leviticus and LXX
    Alpha and Omega
    Gnostics
    Sabaoth
    The Sun
    Adon-Adonai-Adonis
    Conclusion
Moses as Solar Hero [see book]
Conclusion
    Biblical Anachronisms and Errors
    Brutal Literalism
    Intolerance, Cultural Bigotry and Barbarism
    Misogyny and Sexism
    Allegorical Fall
    Political Fiction
    Moses versus Jesus Mythicism
    First and Second Messiahs?
    Preventing Armageddon
Bibliography
Index

As an example of one "small" point I make in DME, not something I dwell upon but which is highly important, I quote Dr. George Smith, the British Assyriologist/archaeologist who discovered the tablets at Nineveh that contain the world-famous Epic of Gilgamesh and the nativity story of Sargon I. I then emphasize that this esteemed scholar's conclusions have not only been accepted into the mainstream as a foundation for Near Eastern studies but that they have since proved to be accurate, not to be dismissed as "outdated." Here is the relevant excerpt:

Quote:
Concerning Moses and Sargon, British Assyriologist Dr. George Smith states:

Quote:
In the palace of Sennacherib at Kouyunjik [Kuyunjik], I found another fragment of the curious history of Sargon... This text relates that Sargon, an early Babylonian monarch, was born of royal parents, but concealed by his mother, who placed him on the Euphrates in an ark of rushes, coated with bitumen, like that in which the mother of Moses hid her child (see Exodus ii). Sargon was discovered by a man named Akki, a water-carrier, who adopted him as his son, and he afterwards became king of Babylonia.... The date of Sargon, who may be termed the Babylonian Moses, was in the sixteenth century B.C. or perhaps earlier.

Since Smith's time, Sargon I has been placed in the 23rd-24th centuries BCE, long before the purported time of Moses, c. 13th-15th centuries BCE by mainstream dating. As we can see, this scholar of a past era was knowledgeable and scientific about his subject matter; indeed, he was an archaeologist on this important excavation of Nineveh, capital of the Assyrians, where he himself unearthed the legend of Sargon. Moreover, Smith is the discoverer and translator of the Epic of Gilgamesh, like the Sargon tale one of the most famous and important ancient texts of all time. Smith's work was pioneering and exemplary, and his conclusions were substantially correct, not "outdated" merely by the fact that he came to them during the 19th century. The only adjustment during the century and a half since Smith's time is the dating, which has been fine-tuned due to discoveries after that.

Many other such conclusions from earlier scholars have been verified or accepted in the past century, including the doubting of Moses and the Exodus as historical entities, comparing, for example, Moses's birth with that of Sargon's to demonstrate the mythicality of this motif, as Smith had done shortly after discovering the Sargon myth. Thus, his groundbreaking conclusions have been accepted into mainstream scholarship. Therefore, it does these great and intelligent scholars a tremendous disservice to dismiss their work merely because it occurred decades or centuries ago. In reality, we are utterly dependent on the work of this generation of scholars, so it is egregious and unscholarly to dismiss, disparage or ignore them.

At this point in DME, I note:

Quote:
I comment here because there has been an appalling trend in the study of history, religion, mythology and archaeology to dismiss out of hand all research prior to the middle of the 20th century, except for primary sources and, perhaps, excavation reports such as Smith’s. In other words, according to this illogical academic snobbery or "theorem," no conclusions, interpretations or insights by these earlier generations are valid and should not even be considered. One can only hope that future generations do not behave so rashly and irresponsibly with the works of our time, including blithely dismissing and disparaging those of current writers advocating this post-1950 methodology.

There is much more to come... :wink:

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Amazon: Did Moses Exist? The Myth of the Israelite Lawgiver

Stellar House Publishing (SHP): Did Moses Exist? The Myth of the Israelite Lawgiver

Stellar House Publishing (SHP): The Study Guide to Did Moses Exist?

This cover is by me and the fabulous Disney illustrator Mark Chiacchira.

Please feel free to raise issues and questions here. I'm sure there's something I haven't covered yet. <groans> :|

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PostPosted: Thu Jun 28, 2012 2:35 am 
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Acharya

Looking at your table of contents it appears that you have done a rather thorough job in your research. There have been a few tidbits that have stood out to me while I have looked at the alleged biblical histories, but you have probably already covered them.

One point that shows the Exodus story was invented centuries later than the alleged event are the passages where Moses said he had to avoid the coastal route in order to avoid the Philistines. Apparently the writer did not know that the Philistines did not arrive in the Levant until about 1185 BCE, which would have been a problem for the story. The same type of mistake was made in Genesis when Abraham and Isaac were supposed to have had dealings with Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, which would have really been several centuries in the wrong time period.

The Merneptah Stele propaganda that Christians and Jews claim to be evidence of the existence of Israel when it does not mention Israel at all. The word on the stele is iisii-r-iar, but Christians and Jews looking for evidence for Israel insisted that it be translated Israel simply because they wanted it to mean that, though they have no evidence to support that translation.

The Hyksos seem to have been a combination of cultures and not just Semites as some people suppose. The evidence for that comes from the bows and chariots the Hyksos introduced into Egypt. They were not the type used by Semites, but were the type used by Indo-Europeans such as the Hurrians.

The description of the Ark of the Covenant (for which there is no evidence that it ever existed) seems to have been copied from the ark that carried the Egyptian god Amun during the Opet Festivals. There seems to have been many things in the story of Exodus copied from the Egyptians. Even the name I Am That I Am was copied from an old engraving on a temple to the Egyptian god Ra where it said Nuk Pa Nuk, or I Am What I Am.

Interesting artifacts from the area of ancient Edom indicate that a Moses type figure is associated with a serpent god indicating that the Nehushtan serpent of Moses that was wrapped around his staff was supposed to have held the actual power to perform miracles, which might explain the story about separating the waters when the staff with the serpent wrapped around it was pointed at the sea, and how Moses' staff became a serpent when he threw it on the floor. Nehushtan the bronze serpent of Moses was allegedly destroyed by king Hezekiah so people would stop worshiping it.

Good luck with getting your new book published. You should try that StellarHouse publisher in Seattle. :wink:

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PostPosted: Thu Jun 28, 2012 1:24 pm 
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Excellent information, Tellurian. You've given me some good info here that I will be incorporating into my book. There are always points here and there that a single individual will miss, which is why we hope to have competent reviewers. Perhaps you would be interested in reviewing my book before it is published? If so, please PM me.

Thanks for the heads up on Stellar House - sounds like the perfect publisher. :mrgreen: :lol:

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PostPosted: Thu Jun 28, 2012 2:45 pm 
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Your thesis follows very closely that of the author Laurence Gardner in his 2003 book entitled "Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark." On page 50, he makes the statement, "...Akhenaten (henceforth to be equated with Moses) ...". This book, as well as his previous ones (Bloodline of the Holy Grail; Genesis of the Grail Kings; Realm of the Ring Lords), concerns itself primarily with the genealogy of various 'royal' bloodlines. His bibliography is, as is yours, varied and extensive and, while his conclusions might seem far-reaching, his methodology is principled. If you're not familiar with his work, it's worth the time to read them.


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PostPosted: Mon Jul 02, 2012 5:34 pm 
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This rabbit hole just keeps getting deeper all the time. Not that it amounts to anything more than what expected: To wit, Moses is a mythical figure, a composite of characters.

However, the trail could not be clearer when one actually gets down into the "dirt" to analyze as much of the data as possible: In this case, all aspects of the milieu of the ethnicity, era, culture, etc. The fact is that, by the time of the Christian effort, the Jews were known as "allegorizers" of their scriptures, producing voluminous commentaries and addenda passed down to us as the apocryphal and intertestamental literature, as well as the Talmud and numerous other texts such as the Kabbalah, which itself is a commentary of sorts build upon ancient traditions both Jewish and Gentile.

Jewish Mythmaking: The Talmud, Unicorn and Giant

As an example of how Jews have engaged in mythmaking - a behavior we already know from the Old Testament but which apparently needs to be reiterated because of the bibliolatry programmed into the minds of billions - among many other tales we find one in the Talmud about a unicorn "as large as Mount Tabor," a species too big for Noah to fit on the ark. We also discover a tale about one of the notorious Nephilim (פִלִים), the giants said at Genesis 6:4 to have been the products of the mating by the (fallen) "sons of God" (bene Elohim) with human females. In this tale, we discover that the giant's "footsteps were forty miles long, and one of his teeth served to make a couch for Abraham."

Following is a summary of the tales about the unicorn, ark and giant from the Talmud - are we really to believe they are historical? In reality, the giant story is reminiscent of mystical tales about Buddha, among others.

Image

What is absurd is that sober, grown men have been arguing for millennia about whether or not this tale and a hundred others found in the Bible itself actually happened in history, how they came about and by whose providence. Here is what our "great minds" have been bickering about, while the world is on the edge of chaos on a global basis like never before, largely because of credulously believing these imaginative and mythical tales as "real history."

Well, back to my extended wake-up call...

Buddha as Myth

Here is the comparison with Buddha:

Quote:
In addition, Gautama is also depicted as being humorless, not having smiled in all the years since he became Buddha. When he finally did smile, "he did not show his teeth, or make a noise like some [but] rays came from his mouth like a golden portico to a dagoba of emeralds, when thrice around his head, and then entered again into his mouth." (Hardy, 339.)

Here is another description of Buddha:

Quote:
The physical description of Buddha is no less fantastic and likewise impossible as "biography." He is depicted as having feet like golden sandals, with chakras (wheels) in the center of the soles. His palms and soles were as soft as "cotton dipped in oil" and "appeared like richly ornamented windows." He possessed antelope-like legs and long, straight arms that reached to his knees. "His secret parts were concealed, as the pedicle of the flower is hid by the pollen," and his body was impervious to dirt and dust. Buddha also had magical hair and nerves, as well as perfectly sized and white-colored teeth, which looked like a "row of diamonds" and which "shone like the stars of a constellation." He had a neck "like a golden drum" and the strength of a lion, etc. Obviously, this description reflects a very strange-looking "person."

See Did Buddha Exist? Was There a Historical Buddha?

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PostPosted: Mon Jul 02, 2012 8:28 pm 
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And here is the reason this book must be written - to dispense with this bigotry that has caused so much trouble globally for centuries.

In the discussion of the Talmud, we discover the question:

"Why are the Gentiles defiled?" pretty much says it all.

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PostPosted: Mon Jul 02, 2012 8:33 pm 
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I'm reminded of the blog: Is Jesus a Myth? from May 26, 2009:

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The same sentiment and sense of triumph are reflected in "A Real Case Against the Jews" by Jewish writer Marcus Eli Ravage, published in The Century Magazine, v. 115, no. 3, The Century Co., NY, 1928, p. 346ff:

"Our tribal customs have become the core of your moral code. Our tribal laws have furnished the basic groundwork of all your august constitutions and legal systems. Our legends and our folk-tales are the sacred lore which you croon to your infants. Our poets have filled your hymnals and your prayer-books. Our national history has become an indispensable part of the learning of your pastors and priests and scholars. Our kings, our statesmen, our prophets, our warriors are your heroes. Our ancient little country is your Holy Land. Our national literature is your Holy Bible. What our people thought and taught has become inextricably woven into your very speech and tradition, until no one among you can be called educated who is not familiar with our racial heritage.

"Jewish artisans and Jewish fishermen are your teachers and your saints, with countless statues carved in their image and innumerable cathedrals raised to their memories. A Jewish maiden is your ideal of motherhood and womanhood. A Jewish rebel-prophet is the central figure in your religious worship. We have pulled down your idols, cast aside your racial inheritance, and substituted for them our God and our traditions. No conquest in history can even remotely compare with this clean sweep of our conquest over you."


When we realize that the ancient, pre-Christian world was filled with stories about superhuman gods, goddesses and heroes of all cultures whose purported lives on Earth were replete with miracles of all manner, we must recognize that it is only by extraordinary human perseverance that one particular set of fabulous tales from one particular culture has become accepted as "true," while all the rest are deemed "myths." In actuality, the acceptance as "history" of such patent fairytales as the son of God born of a virgin who miraculously heals the sick, raises the dead, walks on water, transfigures on a mount, resurrects from death and ascends into heaven ranks as cultural bias and extreme prejudice, not reality. It is high time that this fallacious development and lopsided injustice be exposed and the whole of the human cultural record be embraced.

Quotes from Judaism

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PostPosted: Fri Jul 06, 2012 5:30 pm 
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The Dionysus Connection

Here's a little taste of where I'm going with Did Moses Exist? In the section of the book with the same title as this post, I have included the commentary of several writers from the 17th century on, such as below.

In his book The New Pantheon; Or, an Introduction to the Mythology of the Ages (1831), Irish Presbyterian/Unitarian minister Rev. William Jillard Hort (fl. 1794-5) remarks:

Quote:
The best historians, Herodotus, Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus, assert that [Dionysus] was born in Egypt, and educated at Nysa, a city in Arabia Felix, whither he had been sent by his father Jupiter Ammon. From them it appears that the Bacchus of the Greeks was no other than the famous Osiris, conqueror of India. This Bacchus is supposed, by many learned men, to be Moses. Both are represented as born in Egypt, and exposed in their infancy upon the Nile. Bacchus was educated at Nissa or Nysa, in Arabia, and in the same country passed forty years. Bacchus, when persecuted, retired to the borders of the Red Sea; and Moses fled with the Israelites, from the Egyptian bondage, beyond the same sea. The numerous army of Bacchus, composed of men and women, passed through Arabia in their journey to India. The army of the Jewish legislator, composed of men, women and children, was obliged to wander in the desert, long before they arrived in Palestine, which, as well as India, is part of the continent of Asia. The fable represents Bacchus with horns, which may be supposed to allude to the light that is said to have shone around the countenance of Moses, who in old engravings, is frequently represented with horns. Moses received the Jewish law on Mount Sinai. Bacchus was brought up on Mount Nysa. Bacchus, armed with his thyrsus, defeated the giants. The miraculous rod of Moses was the means of destroying the descendants of the giants. Jupiter was said to have sent Bacchus into India to exterminate a sinful nation; and it is recorded that Moses was commanded, by the true God, to do the same in Palestine. The god Pan gave Bacchus a dog to accompany him in his travels; Caleb, which in Hebrew signifies a dog, was the name of the faithful companion of Moses. Bacchus, by striking the earth with his thyrsus, produced rivers of wine. Moses, by striking the rock with his miraculous rod, caused water to gush out to satisfy the raging thirst of the Israelites. Others have regarded Bacchus as being the same with Nimrod, the first ambitious conqueror, and enslaver of men; that mighty hunter before the Lord.

As we can see, there are numerous parallels here with the story of Moses. While several commentators attempted to make the "heathens" the copiers of the biblical hero, the Greek god is found much earlier in the literary record than is Moses, and, since this tale is clearly mythological and Dionysus's worship was spread from England to India in antiquity, it is more likely that the Moses myth is copied from the Dionysus myth.

As I say, in my book I will provide a list of all these Bacchic attributes, with notation of where they can be found in the primary sources. I will also include a significant amount of the original sources themselves, mainly in Greek. Let us just say that this besmirched older generation of scholars was substantially correct - because they actually READ GREEK, Latin and Hebrew, whereas their critics today more often than not do not possess this important knowledge. In other words, this "outdated" scholarship is factually CORRECT, and these scholars have been maligned unfairly, because of the modern critic's ignorance and lack of necessary skills. "I can't find it," complains the modern critic, referring to a particular attribute. Yes, that's because you can't read the original Greek in which it appears! If you want this information neatly presented to you in your own modern English vernacular, you will need to read my books, for one. That's why I am writing them, because I can and do find these correlations, in their original languages, providing them for you, along with translation(s).

The question remains, why aren't people being taught these Dionysian correlations from the pulpit, when they are being told to believe in Moses as a "historical person?" How can such an important omission be part of an ideology that considers itself the purveyor of truth?

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PostPosted: Sat Jul 07, 2012 3:38 am 
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Books I have found very interesting on the Moses myth are

Moses and Monotheism - Sigmund Freud
The Bible Unearthed - Israel Finkelstein
The Sign and the Seal - Graham Hancock

As to Richard Carrier's bigoted rejection of nineteenth century scholarship, he is best ignored, as are those who follow him with his irrelevant Bayes theory. The key to understanding ancient myth is the link to natural observation of the cosmos. The greats of the nineteenth century such as Massey saw this, but the recent reactionaries want to disparage this basic key in favour of a much narrower racial cultural frame in which Israel is considered in isolation from its large neighbours except for Greece.

Finkelstein presents a very reliable scholarly basis for study of Moses, showing that the archaeological record does not match to the Bible Myth of the Exodus. As to Freud and Hancock, they are both much more speculative, but still interesting and worth reading. The role of Moses within Gnostic thought is one key theme. For example, the serpent on the pole is cited in the key Gospel Chapter John 3, and bears close similarity to the Gnostic Mithraic God Aion, explaining religion in terms of natural time.

In view of Acharya's comment about intellectual fashions, here is as good a place as any to raise a fascinating scholarly observation in the introduction of a book by my old teacher, Professor Raoul Mortley, From Word to Silence. In regard to the philosophy of late antiquity known as the via negativa, the primary method of neoplatonism,

Raoul Mortley wrote:
It is the most remarkable feature of the philosophical life of late antiquity, Greek and Christian, and it is extraordinarily little known or understood in the world of contemporary scholarship. Why is this so? How can a major theme of six centuries of Greek philosophy disappear into limbo? Scholarship is subject to trends and fashions; it is capable of objectivity in respect of the minutiae, but not in the massive act of selection which the historian carries out in order to have objects for his attention.

For many years late antiquity was judged to be an unworthy object of attention within the Anglosaxon syndrome, and it is a clear fact that the major texts of late classical thought are edited in French or German collections. Why is there no book on the via negativa in English? A fashionable neglect has caused the texts to disappear, translations to fail to be carried out, and expertise in the area to wither away.

The present writing is intended to fill a gap in English, but the deeper explanations of this neglect must be put off to another study. This is the question: why has the West lost its own tradition of trans-linguistic mysticism, so that it turns to Buddhism for what it once possessed as its own?
(emphasis added)

From Word to Silence
is available free at http://works.bepress.com/raoul_mortley/


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PostPosted: Sat Jul 07, 2012 5:16 am 
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One source for useful information on ancient Egypt is the archaeologist Donald Redford. He has specialized in the delta region of Egypt with special research investigating Avaris, the ancient capital of the Hyksos. In his book Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times he wrote the following:

The bare bones of Manethos account runs as follows:

A. 1. The King (Amenophis/Ilor) desires to see the gods.
2. Amenophis son of Paapis the seer declares he may if he cleanses the land of lepers.
3. The King sends all lepers to the quarries east of the Nile.
4. Amenophis the seer predicts an invasion of thirteen years.
5. Amenophis commits suicide.
6. The lepers ask that they be allowed to live in Avaris.
7. In Avaris the lepers choose as their leader Osarsiph, priest of Heliopolis.
8. Osarsiph makes monotheistic and racially exclusive laws.
9. Osariph invites the Shepherds back to Avaris.
B. 10. The Shepherds return.
11. The King hides the divine images and sends his five-year-old son to safety.
12. The King declines to fight the Shepherds and retreats to Ethiopia.
13. The Shepherds lay Egypt waste.
14. Reiteration of the PN Osarsiph and identification with Moses.


http://www.skeptically.org/oldtestament/id4.html

Was it myth or history? No archaeological artifacts or contemporary writings have been found yet to verify the authenticity of the story.

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PostPosted: Thu Jul 12, 2012 9:06 pm 
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The Comparative-Religion Work of Gerardus Vossius

More evidence that the post-1950-scholarship cultic view holds no water. Below is the opinion of a professional scholar concerning the massive works of Gerardus Vossius (1577-1649), published in the 17th century and containing much information on comparative religion, including parallels between Moses and other (mythological) figures. As we can see, Vossius was convinced of the link between pagan mythology and biblical stories, although he attempted like so many in his era to point to the latter as the source of the former.

Nevertheless, Vossius's work De theologia gentili is of tremendous interest to scholars and students of comparative religion and mythicism. Unfortunately, this massive opus has never been translated into English.

Concerning Vossius and his "huge work," Dr. Richard A. Popkin - a celebrated scholar who received his PhD from Columbia University and who was a professor at a number of colleges and universities - states:

Quote:
He was perhaps one of the last great Renaissance humanists. He wrote many, many works on Greek and Latin literature and on history. (He wrote the first history of philosophy in modern times.) Because of his moderate theological views, he was purged from the faculty at Leiden by the hard-line Dutch Calvinists and became a teacher at the Ecole Illustre in Amsterdam....

...Vossius dedicated his De theologia gentili to the Church of England. The work was reprinted eight times by 1700 and Edward Gibbon, in the mid-18th century, still considered it one of the major historical writings of modern times. It is one of those works that is frequently quoted or cited at the time, but that recent scholars rarely seem to want to venture into very deeply. Ralph Cudworth and Isaac Newton, among others, use it extensively, and build on it, but it appears forbidding to a contemporary reader.

Vossius's huge work is, first, a taxonomical listing and analysis of the varieties of polytheism and, second, an attempt to show that the personages and activities of ancient pagan religions are degenerative fictions derived by a variety of reductive processes from the original of all religion - the Mosaic religion. Richard S. Westfall, the biographer of Isaac Newton, describes Vossius' book as a "bottomless pit of erudition." It is, I believe, much more. It is a careful classification of polytheistic religious views, based on an amazing use of classical sources, Jewish and early Christian materials, plus information from the explorers, missionaries, and colonizers concerning what was then going on all over the world. Vossius seeks to show that the characters of the different polytheistic religions are really Biblical characters in disguise.

Various scholars before him, such as Bochart and Selden, had argued that specific gods of pagan theology were imitations of Biblical characters. Vossius took on the task wholesale, tracing all the pagan divinities back to their Judaeo-Christian originals and explaining how the pagan deities had been derived as the result primarily of identifying natural events and political figures with personalities in the Bible. We thus find traces of the original figure of Moses in the pagans Mocchus, Mises, Mose, Palaestinus, Jockim and Melehil. Through this process of tracing ancient deities back to their Biblical prototypes, one could understand the origin and history of heathen mythologies.

(Force, James E., and Richard H. Popkin, Essays on the Context, Nature, and Influence of Isaac Newton's Theology, 28.)

As we can see, this work of comparative religion was massive, and is now difficult and forbidding for scholars to study. One of the major reasons for the ignorance of this text is because it is written in Latin, and many fewer scholars today read Latin well enough to undertake such an endeavor. Latin, it should be recalled, was the scholarly language of Vossius's era, and no European scholar could be considered erudite without fluency in it. Hence, we today are greatly impoverished by not being able to access these types of works.

Popkin (27) also calls Vossius's massive three-volume work a "most heroic attempt to compile all the new historical data about ancient and modern polytheistic systems." It would be egregious for us to ignore such works simply because of their date.

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PostPosted: Thu Jul 12, 2012 11:37 pm 
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Diodorus on Jewish Bigotry and Supremacy

According to Photius, in his discussion of the Jews, Diodorus Siculus (1st cent. BCE) relates some very interesting insights that sound familiar. Speaking of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (d. 164 BCE), Diodorus (34.1) remarks:

Quote:
King Antiochus besieged Jerusalem, but the Jews stood it out for some time: but when all their provision was spent, they were forced to send ambassadors to him, to treat upon terms. Many of his friends persuaded him to storm the city, and to root out the whole nation of the Jews; For they only of all people hated to converse with any of other nations and treated them all as enemies; and they suggested to him that their ancestors were driven out of Egypt, as impious and hateful to the gods: for their bodies being overspread, and infected with the itch and leprosy, (by way of expiation) they got them together, and as profane and wicked wretches, expelled them out of their coasts: and that those who were thus expelled seated themselves about Jerusalem, and being after embodied into one nation (called the nation of the Jews) their hatred of all other men descended with their blood to posterity. And therefore they made strange laws, and quite different from other people: never will eat nor drink with any of other nations, or wish them any prosperity.

Source: Diodorus Siculus, The Historical Library, Booth translation, 2.543-544

Describing a statue found in the temple by Antiochus, Diodorus relates that the king thought it was "Moses who built Jerusalem, and settled the nation, and established by law all their wicked customs and practices, abounding in hatred and enmity to all other men."

Next, Diodorus relates:

Quote:
Antiochus therefore abhorring this, their contrariety to all other people, used his utmost endeavour to abrogate their laws. To that end he sacrificed a great swine at the image of Moses, and at the altar of God that stood in the outward court, and sprinkled them with the blood of the sacrifice. He commanded likewise that the sacred books, whereby they were taught to hate all other nations, should be besprinkled with the broth made of the swine's flesh: And he put out the lamp (called by them immortal) which was ever burning in the temple. Lastly he forced the high priest and the other Jews to eat swine's flesh. When Antiochus's friends had debated and considered of these things, they were very earnest with him to root out the whole nation, or at least that he would abrogate their laws, and compel them to change their former manner of living and conversation. But the king being of a generous spirit, and mild disposition received hostages and pardoned the Jews; but demolished the walls of Jerusalem and took the tribute that was due.

This effort of destroying the pathologically xenophobic Jews obviously did not end with Antiochus, as it continued well into the second century AD/CE, with the ultimate creation of Christianity, a cult that abrogated the law and imposed a supernatural, anthropomorphized incarnation that is blatantly a Judaized syncretism of the numerous gods and goddesses of the Roman Empire.

So, it appears that the Jews were a serious problem in the Empire and that there were repeated efforts to destroy their cult, such as the demolition of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 AD/CE and of Judea in general in 134, before Christianity was struck upon as the solution. As we can see, this sociopathic behavior did not end with that era, however, as we continue to encounter essentially the same mentality in Judaic, Christian and especially Islamic fundamentalism.

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PostPosted: Fri Jul 13, 2012 1:54 am 
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Quote:
Describing a statue found in the temple by Antiochus, Diodorus relates that the king thought it was "Moses who built Jerusalem, and settled the nation, and established by law all their wicked customs and practices, abounding in hatred and enmity to all other men."


Some try to explain the dislike of Jews as being a modern anti-Semitic hatred of "Christ killers", but the dislike goes back to a long time before the Christian era. Some of the ancestors of the Jews were known as Habiru, aka Hebrews, and before that the Sa Gaz by the Sumerians.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habiru#Sumerian_records

The Habiru were rejects from the settlements who formed groups of desert bandits that attacked and looted the settlements. An example of an attack is in the story of Jacob/Israel where they kill the men, enslave the women, and loot the property in Genesis 34:26-30.

Some of the ancient peoples found that Habiru/Hebrews could not be trusted, because they were a violent people who could easily turn and kill each other over religious differences or nudity as was recorded in Exodus 32:25-29 when the alleged Moses had his Levite gang kill thousands of other Habiru/Hebrews.

Many people today believe the ten commandments are those listed in Exodus 20, but those were never called the ten commandments in Exodus. The commandments called the ten commandments in Exodus 34:28 are a very different, more violent, more hostile, more stringent list of commandments that included human sacrifice of the first born sons. In Exodus 34:19 and 20 it explains what animals are to be sacrificed (redeemed) and it includes the first born sons, as was expressed in the story of Abraham and Isaac in Genesis 22. Is it any wonder that others considered the practices appalling?

It would seem that when the Habiru/Hebrew/Jews wanted to appear to be more civilized they replaced their older, more primitive, violent, hostile set of ten commandments with the more acceptable set found in Exodus 20, although most people tend to ignore the following commandments in Exodus 21, 22, and 23.

How different history would have been if the Jews in the first century were not so revolting, creating one revolt after another until the Romans completely destroyed Jerusalem and expelled the Jews. What would history have been if the Jews had been a peaceful people?

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PostPosted: Fri Jul 13, 2012 7:14 am 
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Acharya wrote:
the post-1950-scholarship cultic view holds no water.

So what is the background and motivation for Richard Carrier's arrogant dismissal of earlier scholarship? There are many great books from the nineteenth century whose content is largely forgotten. Of course the quality varies, but Carrier's suggestion that correct thought from earlier times has been fully incorporated in more recent work is ridiculous.

Essentially, Carrier is a creature of fashion, seeking preferment through conformity, like the academics who ignore whole swathes of culture critiqued by Raoul Mortley in my post above. Current dominant fashionable ideas seek to establish history on the model of the physical sciences, rejecting any hint of speculative synthesis in favour of a conservative emphasis on what can be proved without doubt.

Unfortunately, Carrier's agenda takes this scientific attitude to extremes, and supports a prejudiced academic view of the boundaries of legitimate research. It all leads to a self-confirming refusal to engage with topics that the current consensus finds uncomfortable, other than in a limited and dismissive way.

A prime example of this biased dominant academic method is the dismissal of analysis of how Jesus Christ is an allegory for the sun. It seems that people like Richard Carrier consider that the link between Jesus and the sun reminds them of astrology, and astrology reminds them of irrationality, so this is enough for them to dismiss astrotheology as irrational and obsolete.

It does not matter to Carrier and similar writers that the justification for their refusal to discuss astrotheology is illogical. Their stance is more about impressions, power and appearances, and the desire to seem rational, regardless of evidence.

The same problem applies to study of Moses. The Egyptian links, the precessional theme of the golden calf, and the Gnostic cosmic connection between the snake on the pole and the symbolism of Christ, all suggest a strongly astrotheological and mythical identity for Moses. But if we arrogantly dismiss anyone who discusses the primary symbolism of Christ as the sun, how can we hope to enter a discussion of the real identity of Moses?


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PostPosted: Fri Jul 13, 2012 9:31 am 
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Robert Tulip wrote:
So what is the background and motivation for Richard Carrier's arrogant dismissal of earlier scholarship?

I'll let Carrier's own words do the talking:
Richard Carrier wrote:
"The first day I arrived in the office of my graduate advisor at Columbia University, Professor William V. Harris, a very distinguished scholar of ancient history, one of the first things he said to me is (paraphrasing, since I can't recall his exact words--this was now about ten years ago), "Don't rely on anything written before 1950 or so unless you can confirm what it says from primary evidence or more recent scholarship."

"In fact, almost every historical work written before 1950 is regarded as outdated and untrustworthy by historians today"

History Before 1950
Code:
http://richardcarrier.blogspot.com/2007/04/history-before-1950.html

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